“No Anakites were left in Israelite territory; only in Gaza, Gath and Ashdod did any survive.” (Josh 11:22)
Biblical Gath rises from a patchwork of peach orchards and forests. But the pastoral quiet can be deceiving: Gath
symbolizes a region that seethed with conflict, revealing evidence of
the ancient cities that were forced to their knees and the innovations
of those who came to live there instead.
dig at Tel Tzafit, which began over a decade ago, reveals ample
evidence of a period of great interest to lovers of Scripture: the seam
between the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age (the 12th and 11th centuries
BCE). It was during this period that powerful old city-states and
alliances began to crumble. They were replaced by a group known as the
Sea Peoples (among whom were the Philistines) and by the Israelites.
Visitors to the massive mounds of Tel Lachish and Tel Hazor hear a great deal about this period. Now, the excavations at Gath
allow it, too, to tell its part of the tale. The view from the top of
the mound shows the region where the two groups of newcomers clashed. To
the west lay the coastal plain and present-day Ashdod, and to the east, the Judean mountains. This is the arena of many biblical stories, among them the exploits of Samson, the return of the Ark to Bet Shemesh, and David’s battle with Gath’s notorious native son – Goliath.
One find, unearthed in a level dating to the end of the 10th century or the beginning of the 9th
century BCE, made worldwide headlines: a fragment of bowl bearing
typical burnished red-slip decoration, and two names that were
Philistine in origin, but written in Semitic script. Not only is this
the earliest Philistine
inscription ever found, but the names may be related to the Lydian-Greek
name Alyattes, which the Semitic writers of the Bible apparently
pronounced “Goliath” – indeed the stuff of headlines.
The city now being uncovered by the Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project (www.dig-gath.org), headed by Professor Aren Maeir of Bar-Ilan University, was a whopping 110 acres in size. This fits its biblical stature: Gath is mentioned frequently. Achish of Gath,
with whom David allied himself when he fled from Saul, was the only
Philistine in the Bible called “king” (1 Samuel 21:10) and his city was
called “royal” (1 Sam 27.2). Many elements of daily life are emerging
from the ground – decorated cooking and storage vessels as well as the
tools and workshops of crafts and industry.
Three of the five Philistine cities – Ashdod, Ashkelon and Gaza
– were never entirely lost, because their names have remained almost
unchanged until this day. The fourth, Eqron, has been located at Tel
Miqneh (at nearby Kibbutz Revadim) and has yielded rich Philistine
finds. Mighty Gath
eluded scholars the longest. Its ancient name did not survive – it
became known in Arabic as Tell es-Safi – “the pure mound” apparently
because of its gleaming white chalk cliffs, an element the Crusaders
also noticed when they called the fortress they built here Blanche Guarde (the white fortress), remains of which can still be seen.
A visit to Gath
is the perfect place to consider the challenge David faced in Goliath,
one of the Anakites (giants) – standing some 9’9” tall, well-outfitted
with armor and a javelin – a big man from a big city. Once you’ve
visited Gath, head out to the Elah Valley
and reenact the story of David and Goliath on the place it actually
happened, with the Bible as your script. You’ll never forget it.
“larger than life” element about Tel Gath are the huge siege works
found by the archaeologists, which are also fertile ground for biblical
connections. They consisted of an artificial trench around the city –
more than 1.2 miles
in circumference – an earthen embankment (berm) created from the earth
and stones dug out of the trench, and towers placed along the berm.
Scholars tell us people defending their city often dug such trenches,
but rarely did the attackers do so. The trench dates from the same time
as the huge conflagration that destroyed the city – the eighth-century
BCE. But who created them?
The Bible may have the answer: 2 Kings 12:18 relates that during his ninth-century campaign King Hazael of Aram destroyed Gath. If so, his son – Bar Hadad – may have learned a thing or two from Dad about besieging cities. One of the rare times such a siege system is mentioned occurs in an Aramaic inscription found in northern Syria, in which a certain King Zakur gives thanks for being saved from a siege by this same Bar Hadad.
More poignantly, Amos, the mid-eighth century BCE prophet who was born in the south but prophesied to the north, warned Israel and Judah: “Go to Calneh and look at it; go from there to great Hamath, and then go down to Gath in Philistia. Are they better off than your two kingdoms?” (6:2).
Amos mentions Gath
as if it were in ruins by his time. Apparently this destruction left a
powerful impression on the contemporary inhabitants of the region. As
new evidence continues to emerge, we are privileged to witness biblical
history as it unfolds.
For more information about Tel Gath and to volunteer at the dig: www.dig-gath.org.